Attached structure Any structure that has any roof or wall in common with another structure
Detached structure Any structure which does not have any roof or wall in common with another structure
Facade Exterior wall or face of a building, usually the front
Facade plane (single vs. multiple) A single facade plane has no visible projection or recess from the facade wall. When there are multiple facade planes, there are facade walls projected or recessed at varying degrees.
Symmetrical vs. Asymmetrical Facade
The following categories of architectural styles are defined by the Department of Revenue. The descriptions below elaborate further on the definitions provided by the Department of Revenue.
A contemporary one story house which provides (or has the potential to be finished to provide) two levels or living area. The lower level is either a raise ("true" or "English") basement which protrudes about four feet above grade or a "walkout" type basement which has one side exposed at grade level when the house is built into a hillside.
Bungalows exist in many styles, but they are generally small, one or one and one-half story houses. The most common style of bungalow found in the First Neighborhoods is the Craftsman bungalow, which is characterized by low-pitched gable roof, wide eave overhang, exposed roof rafters, and full or partial-width porches with roof supported by square columns/piers. Gabled porch roof that replicates the gabled roof of the body is another common elaboration.
The Department of Revenue defines Conventional style houses as, "contemporary one to three story houses with conservative architecture in the 20th century vernacular mode" that "may incorporate elements of Traditional, Spanish, Colonial, Elizabethan, or period designs, but [they] are not true replicas."
Folk style is the most common sub-type of Conventional style houses in the First Neighborhoods. Early folk houses in mid-19th century were built to provide basic shelter with little concern about emulating architectural fashions and thus took on simple forms. Early folk houses were constructed using building materials that were found locally. However, with the advent of long-distance transport and new construction techniques, the building materials of folk houses became more varied. While folk houses built in the early 20th century varied in their building materials, they retained the shapes of their predecessors.
Folk House Forms
Mission Style and Spanish Revival are also categorized as "Conventional" style by the Department of Revenue.
Houses which are innovative or unique in design, use of construction methods or materials. These are typically architect designed and built homes which belong in a class by themselves. Early 20th century architectural movements in this category include the Prairie, International, Art Deco, Art Modern, and Miesian schools. Contemporary examples in this class would also include products of recent movements such as Brutalism, High Tech, Post Modern, and International Revival.
Old Style houses are defined as, "Mid 19th century and early 20th century pattern book vernacular style houses which are transitions from the Victorian era or provincial examples of Georgian revivals or picturesque English style period homes" by the Department of Revenue. Sub-types of Old style houses more commonly found in the First Neighborhoods include Folk Victorian and Colonial Revival.
Folk Victorian houses take on the form of simple folk houses (described earlier in the glossary), but maintain the Victorian decorative details such as decorative trim on porches and gables.
Colonial Revival houses generally have an accentuated front door with pediment supported by pilasters, a symmetric facade, and double-hung windows with multi-pane glazing. Roof forms vary and include gable, hip, and gambrel.
Wide, usually one-story built low to the ground, Ranch style houses were prevalent around 1935-1975. They are characterized by: a low-pitched roof, garage typically on the front facade, large picture window, and front entry located off center.
Split Level describes a form of house rather than a style of house. A Split Level house has multiple stories that are staggered and separated from each other by a partial flight of stairs rather than a full flight of stairs as in multi-story houses. This form of house became popular during the 1950s. Split Levels occupy less area on a lot for the living space they provide, better accommodate sloping terrain, and easily allow compartmentalization of different living spaces. There are two primary types of Split Level houses: Tri-Level Split and Bi-Level Split. A Tri-Level Split has three living stories a half level apart, while a Bi-Level Split (see 'Bi-Level' above) has two living stories, usually with an entryway staggered between the two levels.
Traditional or Victorian
Victorian style refers to a collection of styles that were popular in 1860-1900. Victorian style houses tend to have more complex forms, irregular ground plan, and elaborate detailing, which were all made possible by mass production of building components and new building techniques. While there are differences among the various Victorian style houses, they commonly have multi-textured and multi-colored walls, asymmetrical façade, and steeply pitched roofs.
Exterior Wall Finish
Asbestos Asbestos siding is made by adding asbestos, a naturally occurring mineral to Portland cement. Asbestos siding was previously favored for its durable and fire-retardant properties. Asbestos is now banned in construction due to its potential health risks when air-borne.
Masonite Masonite siding is a hard-pressed board consisting of wooden fibers, wax, and other resins. It is more durable and less vulnerable to insect infestation than wood siding.
(1) Corner lot: A lot located at the intersection of two (2) or more streets.
(2) Interior lot: A lot other than a corner lot with only one (1) frontage on a street other than an alley.
(3) Through lot or double frontage lot: A lot other than a corner lot with frontage on more than one (1) street other than an alley.
Shingle Curved or flat blocks that are overlaid on the roof in an interlocking fashion. Shingles can be made from various materials, such as asphalt and wood.
Composition Roll A mineral-surfaced, "mat-like" roofing that comes in rolls. It is one of the less expensive roofing materials.
Wood Shake Often confused to be synonymous with wood shingle. Yet, wood shakes are more irregular in shape and texture compared to wood shingles due to their different manufacturing processes. Wood shake is split following the grain of the wood more closely.